TRINITY ISE I & ISE II SUGGESTED GRAMMAR

CAMBRIDGE PET INVENTORY OF GRAMMATICAL AREAS

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•Present perfect tense including use with for, since, ever, never, just

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•Verbs

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•Connecting clauses using because

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Regular and irregular forms

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•Will referring to the future for informing and predicting

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•Modals

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•Adjectives and adverbials of quantity, eg a lot (of), not very much, many

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can (ability; requests; permission)

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•Expressions of preference, eg I prefer, I’d rather

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could (ability; possibility; polite requests)

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•Zero and first conditionals, using if and when

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would (polite requests)

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•Present continuous tense for future use

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will (offer)

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•Past continuous tense

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shall (suggestion; offer)

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•Modals connected to the functions listed above, eg must, need to, might, don’t have to

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should (advice)

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•Infinitive of purpose

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may (possibility)

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•Second and third conditionals

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might (possibility)

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•Simple passive

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have (got) to (obligation)

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•Used to

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ought to (obligation)

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•Relative clauses

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must (obligation)

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•Modals and phrases used to give advice and  suggestions, eg should/ought to, could, you’d better

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mustn’t (prohibition)

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•Modals and phrases used to express possibility and uncertainty may, might, I’m not sure

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need (necessity)

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•Discourse connectors because of, due to

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needn’t (lack of necessity)

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•Present perfect continuous tense

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used to + infinitive (past habits)

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•Past perfect tense

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•Tenses

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•Reported speech

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Present simple: states, habits, systems and processes (and verbs not used in the continuous form)

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•Linking expressions, eg even though, in spite of, although

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Present continuous: future plans and activities, present actions

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Present perfect simple: recent past with just, indefinite past with yet, already, never, ever; unfinished past with for and since

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Past simple: past events

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Past continuous: parallel past actions, continuous actions interrupted by the past simple tense

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Past perfect simple: narrative, reported speech

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Future with going to

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Future with present continuous and present simple

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Future with will and shall: offers, promises, predictions, etc.

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•Verb forms

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Affirmative, interrogative, negative

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Imperatives

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Infinitives (with and without to) after verbs and adjectives

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Gerunds (-ing form) after verbs and prepositions

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Gerunds as subjects and objects

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Passive forms: present and past simple

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Verb + object + infinitive give/take/send/bring/show + direct/indirect object

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Causative have/get

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So/nor with auxiliaries

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•Compound verb patterns

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•Phrasal verbs/verbs with prepositions

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•Conditional sentences

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Type 0: An iron bar expands if/when you heat it.

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Type 1: If you do that again, I’ll leave.

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Type 2: I would tell you the answer if I knew it / If I were you, I wouldn’t do that again.

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•Simple reported speech

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•Statements, questions and commands: say, ask, tell

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He said that he felt ill.

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I asked her if I could leave.

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No one told me what to do.

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Indirect and embedded questions: know, wonder

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Do you know what he said?

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I wondered what he would do next.

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Interrogatives

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What, What (+ noun)

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Where; When

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Who; Whose; Which

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How; How much; How many; How often; How long; etc.

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Why (including the interrogative forms of all tenses and modals listed)

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•Nouns

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Singular and plural (regular and irregular forms)

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Countable and uncountable nouns with some and any

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Abstract nouns

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Compound nouns

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Complex noun phrases

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Genitive: ’s & s’

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Double genitive: a friend of theirs

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•Pronouns

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Personal (subject, object, possessive)

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Reflexive and emphatic: myself, etc.

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Impersonal: it, there

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Demonstrative: this, that, these, those

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Quantitative: one, something, everybody, etc.

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Indefinite: some, any, something, one, etc.

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Relative: who, which, that, whom, whose

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•Determiners

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a + countable nouns

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the + countable/uncountable nouns

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•Adjectives

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Colour, size, shape, quality, nationality

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Predicative and attributive

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Cardinal and ordinal numbers

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Possessive: my, your, his, her, etc.

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Demonstrative: this, that, these, those

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Quantitative: some, any, many, much, a few, a lot of, all, other, every, etc.

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Comparative and superlative forms (regular and irregular): (not) as . . . as, not . . . enough to, too . . . to

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Order of adjectives

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Participles as adjectives

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•Compound adjectives

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•Adverbs

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Regular and irregular forms

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Manner: quickly, carefully, etc.

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Frequency: often, never, twice a day, etc.

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Definite time: now, last week, etc.

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Indefinite time: already, just, yet, etc.

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Degree: very, too, rather, etc.

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Place: here, there, etc.

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Direction: left, right, along, etc.

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Sequence: first, next, etc.

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Sentence adverbs: too, either, etc.

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Pre-verbal, post-verbal and end-position adverbs

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Comparative and superlative forms (regular and irregular)

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•Prepositions

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Location: to, on, inside, next to, at (home), etc.

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Time: at, on, in, during, etc.

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Direction: to, into, out of, from, etc.

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Instrument: by, with

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Miscellaneous: like, as, due to, owing to, etc.

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Prepositional phrases: at the beginning of, by means of, etc.

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Prepositions preceding nouns and adjectives: by car, for sale, at last, etc.

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Prepositions following (i) nouns and adjectives: advice on, afraid of, etc. (ii) verbs: laugh at, ask for, etc.

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•Connectives

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and, but, or, either . . . or

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when, while, until, before, after, as soon as

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where

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because, since, as, for

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so that, (in order) to

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so, so . . . that, such . . . that

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if, unless

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although, while, whereas